The efficacy of parent-training approaches for physically abusive parents has been supported by various single-case studies, one study using repeated measures, and group design studies Azar and Twentyman, ; Crimmins et al.
However, the generalizability of these findings is limited by methodological problems, including the absence of clear targets for certain conditions Nichol et al. The Problem of Violence for Urban, African American Youth There is increasing evidence that urban, low-income, African American communities face multiple adverse circumstances including high levels of violence Cohen et al.
Neglected children are 4. Therefore, in the current meta-analysis the hypotheses with regard to the direction of gender-differentiated control i. Individual programs vary by such factors as method of operation drawing on public agency staff or private contractslevel of training, availability of staff, and availability of funds to purchase goods or services for families Kammerman and Kahn, Outcome studies have indicated positive behavioral and attitudinal changes as a result of family or parent treatment, but few studies have examined the effects of such interventions on subsequent reports of child abuse and neglect beyond one year.
Moreover, gender equality has increased in most Western societies over the decades [ 73 ]. Controlling strategies are conceptually similar to the parenting practices described within coercion theory [ 23 ].
However, to date there is no consensus in the literature about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently, in which areas of parenting this mostly occurs, and whether fathers and mothers differ in the extent of gender differentiation [ 6 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ].
University of Wisconsin Press, 21 Magnus J. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Child age Variation in effect sizes for gender differences in parental control may also be related to developmental level.
A lack of consensus still exists regarding the effectiveness of a wide range of treatment services for maltreating families Azar and Wolfe, ; Isaacs, Despite the disconcerting rates of violence exposure experienced by adolescent mothers, there are no known studies focused exclusively on the sequelae of violence within this group.
Studies that employ standardized measures of treatment outcomes and long-term follow-ups on homogeneous samples are likely to be revealing about the effectiveness of treatment for this population Kavoussi et al.
Self-determination theory [ 12 ] provides a framework for different types of parental control that promote optimal or less optimal child development. Simons and Joan F. Mothers reported violence occurring such as pushing, choking, slapping or threatening with a gun or knife from 0 to times when the child was between age 3 and 4, or an average of 17 times per child, in the past year.
The Empirical and Theoretical Links. Self-determination theory cannot be applied to the study of gender-differentiated parental control as one of its fundamental assumptions is the universality of its psychological constructs across gender.
Such [rejecting] parents not only fail to model and reinforce prosocial behavior, they actually provide training in aggressive noncompliant behavior. However, Lytton and Romney [ 8 ] found that gender differences actually decreased with age, specifically for disciplinary strictness.
However, there is currently considerable debate about whether child molesters can be effectively treated. Because I think about where I could have been, you know. There is substantial evidence suggesting that among urban, African American youth, exposure to community violence is related to increased aggressive behavior and psychological distress.
These studies have revealed equivocal findings about the effectiveness of family preservation programs, including high placement avoidance rates in control groups Feldman, ; Mitchell et al.
There is evidence that violence exposure, particularly interpersonal violence, may be remarkably common in young pregnant women Gazmararian et al. Preliminary outcome data on the treatment of juvenile sex offenders show positive outcomes Kavoussi et al.
Received Jan 14; Accepted Jun In the meta-analysis by Leaper et all [ 7 ] less structured and more naturalistic situations and activities yielded the greatest gender differences. First developed in the treatment of addictive behaviors, such as substance abuse, relapse prevention was adapted for use with sex offenders to reduce the risk of re-offending Marques, ; Laws, ; Pithers, Witnessing opposite-gender perpetration was most common, followed by bidirectional violence and same-gender violence, but there were differences in the types of adult violence that boys and girls witnessed.
school violence, community violence, child abuse, or parental intimate partner violence) and that 5% to differences between girls and boys?
Experiences of victimization among adolescents with Substance Abuse Disorders. Differences in how boys and girls reacted to seeing violent episodes also emerged.
“The exposure occurring when the child was of school age predicted poor. There were significant associations among all of the violence exposure variables, with stronger positive correlations between experienced and witnessed violence than between ethnic discrimination and either form of violence exposure.
This indicates that there are no gender differences for help seeking in relation to witnessing abuse and no differences between victims and non-victims. % of girls and % of boys reported that they would seek help if they witnessed abuse. Sexual abuse of boys is common, underreported, under-recognized, and under-treated.
Sexual abuse of girls has been widely studied, leading to awareness of the risk factors and prevalence.Download